Choose a topic from Part 3 Suppl:

22. Persons Concerned in Excommunication

1. The right of excommunicating is lawfully exercised onlyby those who hold the greater and more general judicial power inthe Church, that is, bishops and major prelates.

2. It can happen that the major jurisdiction required forexcommunicating should exist in one who is not a bishop, or even apriest, as, for example, in a papal legate who is a layman, or in adesignated bishop-elect who has not yet been ordained to thepriesthood.

3. A person who is himself excommunicated, or one who is acleric suspended from ecclesiastical office, cannot excommunicate.Such persons, being deprived of jurisdiction by the penalty imposedon themselves, cannot exercise that jurisdiction over others.

4. Excommunication is a penalty imposed by a superior.Therefore, a person cannot excommunicate himself, his equal, or hissuperior.

5. Excommunication is never imposed on a group as such,although each member of a group may be excommunicated individuallyat the same time.

6. A person may labor under multiple excommunication, forthis penalty may be imposed as often as serious reasons demand it.The effect of a second, third, and fourth excommunication is toremovethe excommunicated person further and further from thespiritual helps which the Church gives her children in her generalprayers and good works.

"The Lord has always revealed to mortals the treasures of his wisdom and his spirit, but now that the face of evil bares itself more and more, so does the Lord bare his treasures more."
St John of the Cross, OCD - Doctor of the Church

* * *

"The essence of perfection is to embrace the will of God in all things, prosperous or adverse. In prosperity, even sinners find it easy to unite themselves to the divine will; but it takes saints to unite themselves to God's will when things go wrong and are painful to self-love. Our conduct in such instances is the measure of our love of God."
St Alphonsus de Liguori

* * *

"Obedience is a short cut to perfection."
St Philip Neri

* * *