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22. Persons Concerned in Excommunication

1. The right of excommunicating is lawfully exercised onlyby those who hold the greater and more general judicial power inthe Church, that is, bishops and major prelates.

2. It can happen that the major jurisdiction required forexcommunicating should exist in one who is not a bishop, or even apriest, as, for example, in a papal legate who is a layman, or in adesignated bishop-elect who has not yet been ordained to thepriesthood.

3. A person who is himself excommunicated, or one who is acleric suspended from ecclesiastical office, cannot excommunicate.Such persons, being deprived of jurisdiction by the penalty imposedon themselves, cannot exercise that jurisdiction over others.

4. Excommunication is a penalty imposed by a superior.Therefore, a person cannot excommunicate himself, his equal, or hissuperior.

5. Excommunication is never imposed on a group as such,although each member of a group may be excommunicated individuallyat the same time.

6. A person may labor under multiple excommunication, forthis penalty may be imposed as often as serious reasons demand it.The effect of a second, third, and fourth excommunication is toremovethe excommunicated person further and further from thespiritual helps which the Church gives her children in her generalprayers and good works.

"What good does it do to speak learnedly about the Trinity if, lacking humility, you displease the Trinity? Indeed it is not learning that makes a man holy and just, but a virtuous life makes him pleasing to God. "
Thomas á Kempis

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"Whom do you seek, friend, if you seek not God? Seek him, find him, cleave to him; bind your will to his with bands of steel and you will live always at peace in this life and in the next."
St Alphonsus de Liguori

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"It is not God's will that we should abound in spiritual delights, but that in all things we should submit to his holy will."
Blessed Henry Suso

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