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106. How One Creature Moves Another: Angels

1. One angel can enlighten another, the superior angelmanifesting truths which it grasps perfectly to inferior angelswhose grasp is less perfect. It agrees with the nature ofintellectual creatures to move or effect others of their kind inthis fashion of one teaching and others being taught.

2. Thus, by affording enlightenment, one angel may moveanother angel's intellect. But one angel cannot changeanother's will. Only God can effect such a change.

3. An inferior angel cannot enlighten a superior angel anymore than a candle can bring illumination to the sun. Among humanbeings, who learn by degrees, because their knowing is bound upwith material things, it can happen that one who knows much may beenlightened by one who knows little. This cannot be so among purespirits who do not achieve knowledge ploddingly and piecemeal ashuman beings do.

4. The higher an angel is, the more it participates thedivine goodness; consequently, the more it tends to impart itsgifts to lesser angels. The superior angel tends to give all thatit knows to inferior angels, but these cannot perfectly receive allthat is given. Hence the superior angels remain superior eventhough they impart all their knowledge. Somewhat similarly, thehuman teacher who does all he can to impart his own completeknowledge to his young pupils, remains superior in knowledge evenafter he has taught the lesson; for the pupils take in by a lessercapacity than that of the giver.

"What good does it do to speak learnedly about the Trinity if, lacking humility, you displease the Trinity? Indeed it is not learning that makes a man holy and just, but a virtuous life makes him pleasing to God. "
Thomas á Kempis

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"Let persons in the world sanctify themselves in their own houses, for neither the court, professions, or labour, are any hindrance to the service of God."
St Philip Neri

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"God has no need of men."
St Philip Neri

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