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61. The Cardinal Virtues

1. There are four principal moral virtues. On these theother virtues depend as a door depends on its hinges. And indeedthe name cardinal virtues means hinge virtues; for theLatin cardines means hinges. The cardinal moral virtuesare prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. Prudence, indeed,is really an intellectual virtue, for it is the habitual knowledgeof how to act rightly. But prudence is so intimately bound up withwill-action that all moral virtues require its direction.Therefore, by reason of association and service, prudence iscommonly listed with the moral virtues.

2. St. Gregory (Moral. ii) says that the wholestructure of good works is built upon the four cardinal virtues.Virtues direct good deeds and good lives. Now good is in the reasonby the virtue of prudence; it is carried into operation bythe virtue of justice; it directs the passions of the soulby fortitude, and curbs them from excess bytemperance.

3. The four cardinal virtues cover the ground of moralvirtue. All other moral virtues are subordinate to these four.

4. The cardinal virtues are distinct habits, each with itsown determinate area of application. These virtues are not merelyfour phases of one master virtue.

5. The cardinal virtues may be called socialvirtues inasmuch as man requires them for living rightly in humansociety. They may becalled perfecting virtuesinasmuch as they help man to perfect his character and attain hisend. They may be called perfect virtues since they arealways found in perfected human nature. Finally, they may be calledexemplar virtues, for they are the model or exemplar uponwhich human conduct is to be patterned; besides, the perfectionwhich they involve is found eminently in God, man's divineexemplar.

"A person who rails at God in adversity, suffers without merit; moreover by his lack of resignation he adds to his punishment in the next life and experiences greater disquietude of mind in this life."
St Alphonsus de Liguori

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"There is nothing which gives greater security to our actions, or more effectually cuts the snares the devil lays for us, than to follow another person’s will, rather than our own, in doing good."
St Philip Neri

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"If, devout soul, it is your will to please God and live a life of serenity in this world, unite yourself always and in all things to the divine will. Reflect that all the sins of your past wicked life happened because you wandered from the path of God's will. For the future, embrace God's good pleasure and say to him in every happening: "Yea, Father, for so it hath seemed good in thy sight." "
St Alphonsus de Liguori

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