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111. The Classification of Graces

1. Grace given to make the receiver holy issanctifying grace. Grace given to one person for thebenefit and holiness of others is gratuitous grace; such,for example, is the grace of miracles, or the grace ofprophecy.

2. Grace which directly moves the mind or will to act isoperating grace; grace which disposes mind and will toreceive and use operating grace is cooperating grace.

3. Grace which precedes an operation or state of the soulis pre-venient grace; grace which follows a prior effectof grace is subsequent grace. Grace has five effects: (a)it heals the soul; (b) it awakens the desire for good; (c) it helpscarry the desire for good to the actualachievement of good;(d) it gives perseverance; (e) it conducts the soul to glory. Thesame grace may be subsequent to one of these effects and prevenientto another.

4. Gratuitous graces are thus listed by St. Paul (I Cor.12:8-10): wisdom, knowledge, miracles, prophecy, discerning ofspirits, tongues, interpretation of speeches.

5. Sanctifying grace sets man directly in line with God,his last end. Gratuitous grace stirs man and prepares him to get inline with his last end. Thus a man observing a miracle (wrought bythe gratuitous grace of miracles in the person God uses asinstrument to perform the miracle) may be stirred to repentance orto deeper piety, and so be moved to obtain sanctifying grace. It isclear, therefore, that sanctifying grace is, in itself, more nobleand excellent than gratuitous grace; it is better to be in thestate of sanctifying grace than to have the grace of miracles.

"The one thing necessary which Jesus spoke of to Martha and Mary consists in hearing the word of God and living by it."
R. Garrigou-Lagrange, OP

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"If you wish to learn and appreciate something worth while, then love to be unknown and considered as nothing. Truly to know and despise self is the best and most perfect counsel."
Thomas á Kempis

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"As the flesh is nourished by food, so is man supported by prayers"
St Augustine

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