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111. The Classification of Graces

1. Grace given to make the receiver holy issanctifying grace. Grace given to one person for thebenefit and holiness of others is gratuitous grace; such,for example, is the grace of miracles, or the grace ofprophecy.

2. Grace which directly moves the mind or will to act isoperating grace; grace which disposes mind and will toreceive and use operating grace is cooperating grace.

3. Grace which precedes an operation or state of the soulis pre-venient grace; grace which follows a prior effectof grace is subsequent grace. Grace has five effects: (a)it heals the soul; (b) it awakens the desire for good; (c) it helpscarry the desire for good to the actualachievement of good;(d) it gives perseverance; (e) it conducts the soul to glory. Thesame grace may be subsequent to one of these effects and prevenientto another.

4. Gratuitous graces are thus listed by St. Paul (I Cor.12:8-10): wisdom, knowledge, miracles, prophecy, discerning ofspirits, tongues, interpretation of speeches.

5. Sanctifying grace sets man directly in line with God,his last end. Gratuitous grace stirs man and prepares him to get inline with his last end. Thus a man observing a miracle (wrought bythe gratuitous grace of miracles in the person God uses asinstrument to perform the miracle) may be stirred to repentance orto deeper piety, and so be moved to obtain sanctifying grace. It isclear, therefore, that sanctifying grace is, in itself, more nobleand excellent than gratuitous grace; it is better to be in thestate of sanctifying grace than to have the grace of miracles.

"Try to turn your heart from the love of things visible and bring yourself to things invisible. For they who follow their own evil passions stain their consciences and lose the grace of God. "
Thomas á Kempis

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"Obedience is the true holocaust which we sacrifice to God on the altar of our hearts."
St Philip Neri

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"The one thing necessary which Jesus spoke of to Martha and Mary consists in hearing the word of God and living by it."
R. Garrigou-Lagrange, OP

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