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111. The Classification of Graces

1. Grace given to make the receiver holy issanctifying grace. Grace given to one person for thebenefit and holiness of others is gratuitous grace; such,for example, is the grace of miracles, or the grace ofprophecy.

2. Grace which directly moves the mind or will to act isoperating grace; grace which disposes mind and will toreceive and use operating grace is cooperating grace.

3. Grace which precedes an operation or state of the soulis pre-venient grace; grace which follows a prior effectof grace is subsequent grace. Grace has five effects: (a)it heals the soul; (b) it awakens the desire for good; (c) it helpscarry the desire for good to the actualachievement of good;(d) it gives perseverance; (e) it conducts the soul to glory. Thesame grace may be subsequent to one of these effects and prevenientto another.

4. Gratuitous graces are thus listed by St. Paul (I Cor.12:8-10): wisdom, knowledge, miracles, prophecy, discerning ofspirits, tongues, interpretation of speeches.

5. Sanctifying grace sets man directly in line with God,his last end. Gratuitous grace stirs man and prepares him to get inline with his last end. Thus a man observing a miracle (wrought bythe gratuitous grace of miracles in the person God uses asinstrument to perform the miracle) may be stirred to repentance orto deeper piety, and so be moved to obtain sanctifying grace. It isclear, therefore, that sanctifying grace is, in itself, more nobleand excellent than gratuitous grace; it is better to be in thestate of sanctifying grace than to have the grace of miracles.

"Lord, here burn, here cut, and dry up in me all that hinders me from going to You, that You may spare me in eternity."
St Louis Bertrand

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"The more you know and the better you understand, the more severely will you be judged, unless your life is also the more holy. Do not be proud, therefore, because of your learning or skill. Rather, fear because of the talent given you."
Thomas á Kempis

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"Let persons in the world sanctify themselves in their own houses, for neither the court, professions, or labour, are any hindrance to the service of God."
St Philip Neri

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